Lake County contains a total land area of 501 square miles, with a population of roughly 487,016 people, include a significant minority population in the northern Indiana, 145 miles north of Indianapolis. The County has 11 townships including: Calumet, Cedar Creek, Center, Eagle Creek, Hanover, Hobart Township, North, Ross, St. John Township, West Creek, and Winfield. Lake County's largest cities are Gary (population of 102,746) and Hammond (population of 83,048). The rest of the population lives in small and medium cities and towns.
Lake County has several levels of government ranging from the County Board of Commissioners and the Mayors of seven cities including: Cedar Lake, St. John, Dyer, Lowell, Highland, Munster, Griffith, Winfield, Merrillville, and Schereville.
The county has several environmentally sensitive natural areas especially in the northern section, such as wetlands, dune-and-swal prairies, and oak savannas, includes highly diverse and globally endangered ecosystems.
Lake County is divided geopolitically to the east by Porter County, and the west by Will, Cook, and Kankakee Counties, and to the north by Lake Michigan and the south by Newton and Jasper Counties. The south border is formed by the Kankakee River. The northern portion of the County contains approximately 80 percent of the total population centralized in Gary, Hammond, East Chicago, and Merrillville, white the southern portion has the remaining 20 percent with in the towns of Cedar Lake, Lowell, and Crown Point (the County seat). Overall Lake County has 2 main lakes (Cedar Lake and Lake Dalecarlia) and 4 major waterways (Kankakee River, Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River and the U.S. Ship Canal).
Statewide, Lake County ranks 2nd in total population out of the 92 Counties in Indiana.
Lake Michigan supplies an abundant water supply. Much of Lake County's most productive lands have been retained in agricultural production. Lake County has about 80,000 acres of corn and 50,000 acres of soybeans. Although agriculture was original the prime industry for Lake County, farming now comprises only of 148,139 acres. Approximately 30% of the county in residential. Lowell and Hobart are the biggest farming communities.